Prostate Cancer Staging and Survival Rate Staging is a standard method to decide the seriousness of the tumor. Metastatic prostate disease survival rate would then be able to be evaluated after the malignancy organize has been found. Prostate Cancer Staging The arranging framework for prostate growth depends on American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM framework. TNM itself remains for Tumor, Node and Metastasis. Metastatic prostate disease survival rate in each patient can be extraordinary and the TNM framework is the initial step to make sense of the patient’s guess. There are five imperative things TNM framework can tell. The T class will tell about the degree of the tumor while the N classification is utilized to tell whether the growth has influenced encompassing lymph hubs or not. In the interim, the M will tell regardless of whether the growth has metastasized to different organs. Furthermore, the framework likewise will give data about the patient’s PSA level and the probability for the disease to spread in light of the Gleason score. In the wake of gathering those five data, the specialist will have the capacity to tell the stage and metastatic prostate disease survival rate to the patients. Survival Rate of Prostate Cancer Based on the Stages Stage 1 The measure of the tumor is little and it is confined inside the prostate. Stage 1 prostate malignancy regularly doesn’t demonstrate any indications and even doesn’t appear in imaging tests. At this stage, the 5-year survival rate is near 100%. Stage 2 At this point, the patient may begin feeling a few side effects. Besides, imaging tests and different examinations may have the capacity to recognize the malignancy. Much the same as Stage 1, the disease has not spread outside the prostate, notwithstanding it is conceivable that the tumor will develop all the more quickly. The 5-year survival rate for Stage 2 is still around 100%. Stage 3 In this stage, the tumor may begin spreading to encompassing lymph hubs and fundamental vesicles. Since the growth has spread, the 5-year survival rate reductions to around 95%. Stage 4 Stage 4 is additionally called metastatic disease in light of the fact that the growth has spread outside of the prostate to alternate organs. Other than encompassing lymph hubs, metastatic prostate malignancy frequently spreads to the lungs, bones and furthermore liver. At the point when the disease has metastasized to different organs, the 5-year survival rate will go down to 29%. Other than assessing the survival rate, organizing is additionally used to figure out which medicines will be more appropriate for the patients. Since prostate disease is a moderate developing malignancy, careful sitting tight may be sufficient for Stage 1 patients. In the interim, patients with Stage 4 metastatic prostate malignancy may need to turn to more forceful treatment techniques.
Prostate cancer is a slow growing cancer with almost 100% survival rate. However, in most cases, metastatic prostate cancer survival rate doesn’t even reach 30%. This is why prostate cancer must be diagnosed early to prevent the cancer cells from metastasizing to other areas.
Metastatic Prostate Cancer
Compared to the other cancer types, prostate cancer has one of the best five-year survival rates. However, once it spreads to the other organs, metastatic prostate cancer survival rate becomes very low the cancer starts becoming life threatening. Prostate cancer can spread to different glands and organs in the body, such as the lymph nodes, lungs, bones and liver.
Metastatic prostate cancer survival rate varies according to where the cancer spreads. In Stage 3 prostate cancer where the cancer cells affect the surrounding lymph nodes, most patients can survive up to 32 months. However, once the cancer reaches Stage 4 and spread to the other organs, the survival rate will get even worse. The survival rate for bones and lungs metastases is usually 19 to 21 months. And when the cancerous prostate tissues go to the liver, the average survival rate is less than 14 months.
Once a man is diagnosed with prostate cancer, he needs to start paying attention to symptoms of metastases. This is because 50% of prostate cancer patients suffer from metastatic cancer at some point of their life. The symptoms will differ according to where the cancer spreads. When the metastasis is located at the bones, the symptoms will include pain and discomfort on the hips, ribs or spine. Meanwhile, liver metastases are usually marked by jaundice.
Diagnosis and Treatment
When a man has been diagnosed with prostate cancer, the doctor usually recommends additional tests to find out whether or not there are signs of metastases. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computerized Tomography (CT) Scan are one of the most common methods to diagnose metastatic prostate cancer. However, additional symptoms might be added to check for signs of metastases in specific area.
If the patients complain about pain and discomfort in the bone area, the doctor will recommend isotope bone scan. But if the metastases are suspected to present in the liver, the patients might want to undergo liver function test and also some standard blood tests. Once the presence metastatic prostate cancer is confirmed, treatments must be immediately started. Besides the common cancer treatment like radiation, surgery or chemotherapy, additional treatments are also needed to address the problems in the metastases area.
When a man notices symptoms related to prostate cancer in his body, it is important to see a doctor as soon as possible. Early diagnosis will really help improving metastatic prostate cancer survival rate. Here are some methods and tests commonly used to diagnose prostate cancer.
Getting preliminary tests for prostate cancer will not only help increasing metastatic prostate cancer survival rate, but also prevent the cancer from spreading in the very first place. There are various tests that can be performed to determine whether a man has prostate cancer or not. But the doctor might recommend these following early tests:
PSA is a protein that is produced by the prostate gland and all men have it. However, cancer cells in the prostate will mess up the protein production, causing the level of PSA in the blood rapidly increasing. PSA testing is conducted to find out the level of PSA a man has in his blood. If the man has too much of this protein, it might be a sign that he has prostate cancer. Increased PSA level is usually a sign of early stage prostate cancer. So, at this stage the patient doesn’t have to worry about metastatic prostate cancer survival rate yet.
However, PSA testing alone is not enough to determine whether or not someone suffers from prostate cancer. This is because a man’s PSA level will naturally increase as they age.
Digital Rectal Examination (DRE)
During this examination, the doctor will insert a gloved and lubricated finger into the patient’s rectum. It is done to physically check the texture, shape and also size of the prostate gland. The texture of a cancerous prostate gland usually becomes hard and bumpy. Furthermore, the size also will enlarge.
If the results of the preliminary tests show some abnormalities, the doctor will also recommend some other further tests to confirm the diagnosis. One of them is biopsy. A surgeon will take some tissue samples of the prostate to further examine it. Biopsy is the test that can present a definite diagnosis. As a result, when the doctor thinks that the patient’s symptoms matches the symptoms of prostate cancer and the preliminary tests show abnormalities, the doctor definitely will recommend the patient to do a biopsy.
If the test results show that the patient has prostate cancer, the doctor and the patient can discuss the most suitable treatment methods to improve the patient’s condition. If the cancer is detected in the very early stage, immediate treatment might not be necessary.
Advanced prostate cancer often metastasizes to the bone. Metastatic prostate cancer survival rate when the cancer spreads to the bone is very low. However, the prognosis is still slightly better compared to liver metastases.
Bone Metastases Prostate Cancer
When someone is diagnosed too late with prostate cancer, there is 60 percent chance that the cancer will spread to the bone. When the cancer has metastasized to the bone, the treatment will become more complex. As a result, the metastatic prostate cancer survival rate for bone metastases can be less than 40%. Most patients of bone metastases prostate cancer can only survive for around 19 to 21 months after diagnosis.
Since prostate cancer is a slow growing cancer, many patients don’t really notice the symptoms. As a matter of fact, more than 50% of patients are diagnosed with prostate cancer when it has spread to the bones. In this case, to improve metastatic prostate cancer survival rate and also to ensure effective treatment, the GP must be able to recognize whether the cancer is originated in the bones or it is a metastasis of cancer from other locations.
The symptoms of prostate cancer involve painful urination, blood in the urine and also disrupted flow of urine. However, if the cancer has spread to the bones, the patients will experience additional symptoms that are not related to the early symptoms. In the case of bone metastases prostate cancer, the symptoms include pain in the affected area, weaker bones, sudden fractures and also paralysis. Ribs, spine and hips are usually the location affected by the cancer. However, it is not impossible that the cancer also appears in the other bones.
Diagnosis and Treatment
Bone metastases can be pretty hard to diagnose because the symptoms are similar with arthritis. However, when a prostate cancer patient feels some symptoms in the bone area, it is best to check it immediately because there is a high chance that the pain is a sign of bone metastases.
Bone scan is one of the most effective methods to diagnose bone metastases. This method utilizes radioactive tracer that is injected intravenously to the patient’s vein. If the symptoms are caused by cancer, the area will appear dark in the camera.
When the cancer has spread to the bones, the treatment plan for the prostate cancer must be adjusted. Hormone therapy might not be the best option because it is known to weaken the bones. In addition to radiotherapy, Bisphosphonates is often used as additional treatment to strengthen the bones.
When a patient is diagnosed with metastatic prostate cancer, the cancer care team will propose some treatment methods. Here are some of the most common treatment options to improve the patient’s metastatic prostate cancer survival rate.
Radiation treatment, or radiotherapy, utilizes high energy rays to kill, or at least slow down the metastasis process of the cancer cells. By killing the cancer cells and preventing it from rapidly spreading to other organs, it is hoped that this treatment can increase metastatic prostate cancer survival rate. Radiation treatment is also used to relieve pains and other symptoms prostate cancer patients often feel.
Radiotherapy can be used to improve metastatic prostate cancer survival rate in several different ways. Firstly, the high energy rays are aimed from outside the body using a dedicated machine. Furthermore, this treatment also can be performed by surgically planted small radioactive seeds inside the prostate. This radiotherapy treatment is called brachytherapy.
Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill the cancer cells and prevent them from multiplying. The patients can take the drugs as pills, but they also can be given intravenously. Just like radiation, chemotherapy is an aggressive treatment for prostate cancer, and other cancers in general. Therefore, it is only used to treat metastatic prostate cancer.
Chemotherapy is known for its side effects that include hair loss, extreme fatigue and nausea and also loss of appetite. This is because the drugs will not only kill the cancer cells but also harm the healthy cells. As a result, patients usually opt for this treatment as the last option.
Prostate cancer cells feed on a male hormone called Androgens. So, to slow down the growth rate of the cancer cells, hormone therapy is used to reduce the levels of androgens in the patients’ body. When the cancer cells don’t get enough “food”, it will start shrinking gradually.
Even though hormone therapy cannot really cure prostate cancer, there are some situations where it becomes the most feasible treatment for the patients. Usually, doctors will propose this treatment if the patients are too old or too weak to handle chemotherapy, radiation and surgery. Furthermore, it is also often used alongside other treatments, like radiation, to make the treatment more effective.
When the treatment ends, patients still need to regularly see their doctor even after they have declared cancer free. Follow-up visits are important to make sure the cancer doesn’t come back and the patients can stay healthy.